Oil prices have been in a sustained trend higher since the beginning of 2016. But volatility is the
nature of the oil price and continued volatility is likely in the next year – especially in the price spread
between U.S. shale oil and West Texas Intermediate crude oil, the U.S. benchmark. Uncertainty about
supply and demand is adding volatility and remains a key issue for the oil market now.
Q: What issues are affecting oil prices now?
A: We think it has been a healthy environment for oil. For
about the past 18 months, the Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC) basically was out of the market.
It was not increasing supply, with close compliance to the
agreed output reduction, and even was producing less
because Venezuela’s production had dropped off steeply. In
addition, there have been issues in Libya and the potential
for a return of U.S. sanctions on Iran in November.
The only game in town has been the U.S. as far as growing
supply. U.S. output has grown about 1.5 million barrels
per day (bpd), which has been enough to supply much of
the strong growth in demand. OPEC’s pause in production
brought inventories back to the five-year average or lower.
But in June, OPEC decided to increase output again and its
members now are starting to add oil supply to the market.
The keys, however, are Saudi Arabia, Russia and maybe a
few smaller countries on the margin that can supply oil. As
long as those producers don’t try to flood the market in an
effort to generate oil income, we think we’ll have a balanced
oil market with prices above $70 per barrel for Brent crude
oil, the international standard, and slightly less than that in
the U.S. But there aren’t many companies and countries that
are unhappy with the current oil price, which seems to be a
comfortable level for both the demand and supply sides. We
think that market balance may extend for the next two years.
Q: What do equity valuations indicate about current oil prices
A:We think that’s an important market factor. Over the past
year, oil prices in general are up about 49% but the related
equities are up 10-12%. Equities obviously have not followed
the moves in oil prices. We think equity valuations now are
priced for oil at about $50 per barrel. By comparison, Brent
crude is at about $70 and WTI is about $67. In our view, this
makes for a strong risk/reward environment for the equities.
Oil prices have taken a winding path higher during volatile market year
Q: Does OPEC's output increase mean supply will cover expected demand growth?
A: We think the market still is early in the cycle. There will be
a deficit until OPEC and Russia start bringing oil back to the
market. That helps the market now, but who’s going to supply the
growth in crude oil demand needed in 2019, 2020 and 2021? We
believe the U.S. will provide at least 75%, but it’s not clear which
countries can supply the remainder.
Over the last 10 years, about 70% of the growth in supply has
come from two countries: Iraq and the U.S., although Saudi
Arabia and Russia both added a little to their totals. But can
the U.S. continue to increase supply? We don’t think Iraq can.
While we think the U.S. can increase supply, it can’t go it alone in
meeting demand growth.
Demand in general has been stronger than we expected. It has
increased about 1.6 million barrels per year on average in each
year since 2015. Much of that is because of lower oil prices. In
the prior 10 years, the growth averaged 1 million barrels per year.
We don’t think the recent dramatic growth rate is sustainable,
given current conditions, but that still is likely to mean a supply
shortfall. U.S. shale oil companies can produce at the current oil
price, but many in the rest of the world cannot. We think a higher
oil price will be needed to provide the incentive to find more oil.
Global thirst for oil likely to increase with emerging market growth
Q: Can the U.S. pipeline system support increased output?
A: Pipelines in the U.S. are getting full. Two new pipelines are
under construction and expected to be in service in 2019. But it’s
going to get pretty tight during the next six to 12 months and a
lot of producers won’t be able to get their oil to market.
In addition, there are natural gas pipelines out of the Permian
Basin. You can ship oil by truck or rail if the pipelines are full,
but you can’t do that with natural gas. Rail companies are
carrying more crude oil now in the U.S. than they were in
2016, which was the peak. But they are moving quickly in that
direction. The challenge is to ship crude oil to the U.S. Gulf Coast
to be processed and exported.
Q: What could cause a disruption in oil supply?
A: Venezuela’s production is down almost 1 million barrels over
the last 12-18 months and we think it will continue to fall in
the near term. Then the question is how quickly the country
can begin to recover and bring that oil back to the market. The
major oil companies will go back there and are likely to get good
contracts for five to eight years as Venezuela pushes to increase
production. But we think the supporting infrastructure in the
country will be a problem. Venezuela shut down a lot of its
refineries, and some were done quickly and in ways that could
cause permanent damage. We therefore think it could take three
to five years to rebuild that infrastructure and get production
back to a material amount.
The return of sanctions on Iran also is likely to cause a supply
problem, although we think that will take place somewhat
slowly. There have been a wide range of estimates about the
amount of oil that may continue to come from Iran and whether
it will be cut off completely. There also was talk from the Trump
administration that any shortfall from Iran would be offset by
production increases from Saudi Arabia and Russia. Nothing is
settled yet, and Saudi Arabia has simply said it will only give the
world the amount of oil it needs.
The administration also recently said it would release oil from
the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve. We think it’s a way to talk
down the markets – it’s clear that President Donald Trump is not
happy about high oil prices. He doesn’t want anything to derail
current economic growth. But we believe any real impact from
a reserve release would be temporary and would not be a game
changer for total oil supply.
World demand for oil is about 100 million bpd and the total
reserve release is forecast at 5 million to 30 million barrels.
There’s no estimate of how quickly that could come onto the
market. But again, we believe any impact on oil prices would
Q: What's your oil price outlook for 2019 and 2020?
A: Let’s look at recent history. We have expected prices to move
higher since the beginning of 2016, when oil was about $30 per
barrel and we looked for a move to $50. Basically, the industry
had not spent money on its equipment or other projects for two
years. That lack of spending could have caused a problem in five
years. Last year, the market needed the price at a level where
companies would be comfortable producing again, and the U.S.
price moved above $60.
We think the price of oil now has to move to a level that gets the
rest of the world’s oil industry working again – above $70 and
maybe on the way to $80 – and stay in that range. In our view,
companies then will commit to putting money back to work.
The oil price tends to be cyclical and this is how the industry has
moved after past downturns.
There are a couple things happening in this cycle that are not
typical, however. Some U.S. energy companies are showing
restraint in capital expenditures because they’re generating
excess cash flow at current oil prices. Many are making share
repurchases and some are increasing dividends. Those are
unusual actions for exploration & production companies,
especially in the past 10 years.
It’s worth noting that the international oil price is above $70 per
barrel but pricing in the Permian Basin is closer to $55. Until the
pipeline capacity issue is resolved, companies there don’t want to
put money into an already tough situation.
In addition, the rig count around the world still is near the lows
of the cycle and we’re not seeing investment into a lot of these
resources. We thus think the U.S. will continue to supply most of
the world’s demand growth.
It’s hard for investors and the oil market to believe in the price
now because of the volatility. We have not seen widespread
confidence to jump back into the market and invest. We think
many are getting more comfortable with current fundamentals,
but it may take time for market participants in general to believe
that this price level will hold.
Q: What are the risks to your current outlook?
A: We think there are several:
- Electric vehicles: There were ideas electric vehicles would be in wide use by 2025. Now it seems that it will take a much longer time to turn the world’s fleet of cars and trucks into electric vehicles, and to build out the supporting grid and infrastructure. We don’t think that will happen by 2025. We do think electric vehicles are here to stay and will be material as time goes, but we’re far away from that time.
- Declining oil inventory: Worldwide oil inventories are below their five-year average and we think they will continue to decline for the next few months. OPEC has begun to increase output again but at a conservative pace, in part just to keep up with demand. In the U.S., the pipeline bottlenecks are affecting supply growth. But the energy stocks still haven’t reacted yet.
- Early in recovery stage: We’re focusing on market fundamentals now, not on “What if?” scenarios for supply and demand. We think the market still is at an early-recovery stage, which can add to uncertainty. While change is possible, we think the fundamentals of supply and demand mean the market is pricing correctly now, but change certainly is possible.
- Changes to supply/demand: The market for about the past two years has seen oil demand at a rate above its historical average. We think it’s reasonable to assume there will be a reversion to the mean in demand, in part given higher prices. If there is a major change in demand from China or a surprise increase in supply from Venezuela or Libya, that would shock the markets. There’s also the potential that the new U.S. pipelines due in late 2019 could prompt producers to begin a major re-acceleration in supply growth. That growth coupled with demand returning to average could add balance to the market.
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